Message from the Editor
"We live in an age in which men have accomplished magnificent things and made miraculous advances, an age in which man embarks upon the exploration of the stars. Yet, on our own planet we continue to act as barbarians. Like barbarians we fear our neighbors on this earth; we arm against them and they arm against us. The time has come when this must be halted if man is to survive. We must become accustomed to the fact we are human beings....
"Dear friends, my only weapons for justice and against war have been my cello and my conductor's baton; and though I cannot be with you, my music will speak for me of love and peace...."
-- Pablo Casals, 1967
>> I have some comments on Charlotte Lehnhoff's article on Beethoven's Op. 69 Sonata. It is extremely well documented, informative and serious. The problem is that it is now almost 15 years old, and a lot has happened since.
In 1992, my good friend Lewis Lockwood published BEETHOVEN, STUDIES IN THE CREATIVE PROCESS, Harvard University Press, in which he clears up many points, in particular the existence of the "Clauss" copy.
Then, in 1997, in The Beethoven Journal of the American Beethoven Society, I wrote an article: Henle's URTEXT Edition of the Sonatas for Cello and Fortepiano. In it I discuss the Urtext Myth and I describe the different errors of the Henle edition.
Finally, in June 1998, the Bonn Beethoven Archives organized at the Beethoven-Haus, a SYMPOSIUM ON THE BEETHOVEN CELLO SONATASin which I participated. In Bonn. I had a very candid conversation with Bernard van der Linde about his edition of the sonatas, and he admitted publicly that I was absolutely right with my comments in my article. We became friends and we have corresponded since then. I also obtained from Henle that they publish an updated edition which, regrettably, has not come out yet.
All this makes Lehnhoff�s text somewhat outdated, and I am sure she must be conscious of it. Furthermore, she seems unaware of the detailed article by Alexander Broude, in the May 1968 isssue of the New York Violoncello Society Newsletter, in which he gives Beethoven�s list of corrections sent to Breitkopf on August 1, 1809.
I possess the facsimile of the early draft of the first movement, as well as the Artaria first edition for many years, and agree with most of Lehnhoff's remarks. In addition I have photocopies of the first editions and manuscripts, when available, of the five sonatas.
Thanks to Alfred Dunning, its rediscoverer, I also have a xerox of the famous "Clauss" version of Op. 69. It is the fair copy of the complete sonata, which was used for the first and all the subsequent editions. Dr. Alfred Dunning, a noted Dutch musicologist, found it in a library in the Netherlands. As Otto Clauss, a Dutchman, the owner in the 1850�s of this manuscript, was a consul for Holland, it may explain why it got there. I suggested that a facsimile of it be published by the Beethoven-Haus. I understand it just came out.
Concerning the Scherzo, Lehnhoff, very rightly so, mentions the three letters of Beethoven about errors in the published edition. We must follow his final wish in the third and last letter. As Lockwood, demonstrates in his book, the ff�s at the beginning are correct. It was confirmed in Bonn in 1998. It contrasts with the p's of the answering cello.
What I, personally, find the most interesting in the manuscript of the first movement, discussed by Lockwood and Lehnhoff is that, at m. 13 the cello plays the theme with the piano, and at ms. 92 and 229 there are accents on the first and third notes.
I would like also to bring to the attention of pianists, the 4-3 fingering of the Scherzo, usually overlooked. If the cello does the same, it produces a wonderful effect. All this can be heard on my CD's "The SEVEN Beethoven Sonatas - GALLO 672/3" or write to: PourLaMusique@netscape.net.
I look forward to reading parts IV-VI of Charlotte Lehnhoff's article.
Hoping that these precisions will be useful to the performers of this masterpiece.
Charlotte Lehnhoff replies: Mr. Dimitry Markevitch, though well-informed on most points, raises some questions in his letter which call for clarification.
I wrote the six articles between 1987 and 1991. This was before any of the three events described by Markevitch had occurred, namely, the 1992 book by Lockwood; the 1997 article by Markevitch; and the Symposium in 1998. The tone of my articles was deliberately in a chatty style, because I was addressing primarily those cellists who are not familiar with the scholarly aspects of the Beethoven sources and thus with the bearing that a historically informed view of them may have on aspects of performance. My goal in writing the articles, as I stated at the outset of Part I, was to attempt to make Lockwood's 1970 study and research accessible and understandable to members of the cello world. This is perhaps why the Internet Cello Society chose to reprint the articles which I wrote between 1987 and 1991.
I am somewhat puzzled by Markevitch's comments regarding Broude's article which appeared in the 1968 issue of the New York Violoncello Society Newsletter about the August 1, 1809 letter. This letter contains the Misprint List (number 220 of Emily Anderson's edition of The Collected Letters of Beethoven). In Part I, I discussed Emily Anderson's edition of Beethoven's letters. Her edition was published in 1961. I don't know what Broude based his article on. Perhaps Broude felt he was doing the cello world a service by bringing the Misprint List to light. I cited Anderson's translations in Part I. Part IV of the series of articles goes into considerable detail about the Misprint List. What is more, I closely studied Lockwood's Appendix V of the article in The Music Forum, in which he offers a facsimile of the Misprint List, in Beethoven's handwriting. Lockwood also provided his own translation of the List in the Appendix. In addition, in preparation for writing the articles, I examined the German edition of Beethoven's letters, with the Misprint List printed in it. The German edition was published in 1907. Maybe Markevitch brought up the Broude article because he felt that Broude had something more, or other, to say about the Misprint List.
I, too, have a copy of the full-color facsimile, published by Columbia University Press. For Parts I-III, I worked with the photoreproduction of the facsimile that was printed in Lockwood's article. I was able to make all my observations using just the photoreproduction. Having the full-color facsimile did not cause me to change any of my observations. Rather, it enhanced them. Furthermore, it enabled me to make some of the quite detailed observations discussed in Parts IV-VI.
I have been informed that the Beethoven Institute in Bonn has plans for future publication of the "Clauss" version of the "fair copy" which Beethoven had had prepared by a paid copyist. The cello world and the world of Beethoven scholarship will be greatly enriched when we can examine this important document. It was what Beethoven sent to his publishers. Being able to examine it will, we hope, contribute to answering questions about what appear to be differences between the autograph, the Misprint List, and what is in print.
Editor's note: Parts IV-VI will be published in a future newsletter, probably the January/February 2002 issue.
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by Tim Janof
Mr. Eddy received his Bachelor's and Master's degrees with honors from the Manhattan School of Music, where he was a scholarship student of Bernard Greenhouse. He spent several summers as a participant in the Marlboro Music Festival and toured the U.S. numerous times with the "Music From Marlboro" concert series. Recently, Mr. Eddy has spent his summers with the Santa Fe Chamber Music Festival, the Sarasota Music Festival, the Aspen Music Festival, and the Steans Institute.
Timothy Eddy teaches cello at the Juilliard School and the Mannes College and he is Professor Emeritus at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. As cellist of the Orion String Quartet (with Daniel and Todd Phillips, violins, and Steven Tenenbom, viola), he is an artist-in-residence with the Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center and at the Mannes College of Music. With the Orion Quartet, he has appeared in major musical centers in the U.S., Canada, and Europe, including festivals in Lockenhaus (Austria); Spoleto (Italy); New York ("Mostly Mozart"); Charleston, S.C.; Mondsee (Austria); Turku (Finland); and Vancouver (Canada). He appears regularly in duo recital with pianist Gilbert Kalish, and he is the solo cellist of the Bach Aria Group. Mr. Eddy has recorded for Columbia Records, Angel, Vanguard, Nonesuch, C.R.I., New World, Vox, Musical Heritage, Delos, Arabesque, and Sony Classical.
Timothy Eddy is highly sought-after as a teacher, and his former pupils have come from England, France, Germany, Holland, Australia, New Zealand, Israel, Japan and Korea, as well as the U.S. and Canada, and they have won positions in major orchestras and universities in the U.S., Canada, Europe, and the Far East; many have also achieved distinction in their careers as chamber musicians and soloists. Mr. Eddy has been a member of the faculty of the bi-annual Isaac Stern Chamber Music Workshop at Carnegie Hall in 1993, 1995, 1997, and 2001.
TJ: How did you get started on the cello?
TE: My first instrument was the piano, not the cello. My mother was a piano teacher, so she taught me along with her other students. I was never serious about the piano, and I wasn't too keen on having my teacher living in the same house, so my time with the piano didn't last.
I discovered the cello in fourth grade at my public school in Bethesda, Maryland. One day my class was broken into small groups and each was sent to the auditorium. A music teacher tested our ears and determined which instruments we might be suited for. My family then received a form letter stating that I was able to study any instrument I'd like, including a stringed instrument. I was particularly interested in the trumpet at the time, but I had had an accident on a jungle gym the previous year, where I had damaged the root of one of my front teeth. My dentist said that the pressure of the trumpet's mouthpiece could damage the tooth further, so the trumpet was ruled out. It turned out that my grandfather owned a cello which someone else was using at the time. I wanted to use it, but it was a full-size instrument, so we rented a 3/4 size cello for several months until I was big enough for my grandfather's instrument. If nothing else, I was pleased to be playing a type of instrument that nobody else in my house played.
(Click here for the complete transcript.)
by Selma Gokcen
I was a participant in Pleeth's masterclasses in the late eighties and early nineties and from the very outset was struck by the unique and utterly captivating musical vision of this "English gentleman." It was only later that I became aware of his Eastern European origins; his passionate commitment to music had roots centuries old.
When I enquired whether anyone had filmed him in action, the reply was no. Furthermore, there were no plans to do so. I could envision entire generations of cellists poorer for not having witnessed his vision of music through the voice of the cello. These are the times when something takes over and says in you that this just has to be done. In three months, with William's consent, I found the donors (Charles Beare and Peter Biddulph among the generous), organised the film crew, and took care of the thousand and one things a novice producer encounters on their first adventure. It was a labour of love from start to finish.
(Click here for the complete transcript.)
by Michele Klau and Rejscheck
We made this interview with Max Lilja and Paavo Lötjönen from Apocalyptica before the concert in Jena/Germany on August 17, 2001. Thanks to Jennifer Moser for providing the pictures.
MK: Would you like to get more respect from the world of classical music?
Paavo: Well, I guess we actually do get respect. I don't know how it is in the other countries but in Finland we do. We have gotten quite a good response and have a good reputation with the Finnish classical scene. Yeah, I guess that's it. They think we are doing this with a professionalism and we are doing it quite honestly and seriously, and so there are not so many things to criticize. Of course there are a lot of classical musicians who don't understand this kind of music, so they can't understand our music. They don't understand the main point in the music, you know, Heavy Metal. Or the more heavier stuff.
Max: There was actually a review of 'Cult' in the biggest daily newspaper in Finland made by a classical journalist. It was really positive. Of course there were some things he complained about, like sometimes it's a bit too rough and too rock but, well, he's a classical journalist so who really cares?
(Click here for the complete transcript.)
(Click here for the complete transcript.)
This new site features an extensive list of Russian cello music.
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>>Faster faster faster playing!!!
Cellogram asked: Can any one offer some playing/practice tips for faster playing?
Dennisw: Use a metronome. Start slowly. Increase the speed gradually. I guarantee that this will work. But you MUST be patient. Playing fast is more a question of coordination and synchronization than it is a question of speed.
Bob Blais: What works really well is playing faster in spurts. For example, you want to play ABCDEFG practice AB-CD-EF-G until the spurts are fast and relaxed, then A-BC-DE-FG, then ABC-DEF-G, then A-BCD-EFG, then AB-CDE-FG, then all groups of 3, and 4, 6.
It also helps to practice without fingers, just figure out the bow pattern.
Mvotapek: I find even after using these methods to improve a passage, I often still get tight and "choke" before making it through. The next practicing i do is to start from the end...play the last beat, then the last half bar...then the last bar, 2 bars, etc. I usually realize that the passage isn't as hard as my body thinks, but there had been a cumulative tension building up that was keeping me from success. Programming and coordinating the END well adds confidence and teaches where to release this tension.
my spleen: The best method I have discovered for learning to play a passage faster is to practice it SOFTLY. When you do this, your left hand will automatically relax. You will be amazed at how much more quickly you can play. Then when you play it faster, try to keep the same relaxed feeling in your left hand.
David Sanders: Frank Miller always taught to practice scales fast with separate bow. Also arpeggios. It does wonders for coordination and helps you play passages much faster with quite a bit of ease.
JuilliardRock: All these methods do work well but I would be wary of the suggestion to practice things softly. In my experience (and with students) I have always found that, in addition to gradually building up, it is best to work the passage under all the conditions it will eventually be played: if marked forte, marcato, it should be practiced that way even slowly; if piano and sautille, don't practice it on the string. The minute we separate the NOTES from the musical context, the practicing is less useful because when it comes time to put it all together, something is missing!
>> String Crossings
CouranteSiii asked: When I am reading music and playing...I often find that when I am shifting into third fourth or basically just any position that about 75 percent of the time my bow touches other strings. Can anyone give me some advice?
David Sanders: Have you tried practicing slow open strings and string changes?
Anneliesscott: This might not be your fault at all if the curve or height of the bridge is wrong. Sometimes if the bridge is too high, going into higher positions make it impossible to play one string at a time. Normally this would only be the case in thumb position, but if your bridge is wildly out, it won't be helping!
MsCheryl: Also, make sure you finish playing on the one string before crossing to the next. I find with my own students that sometimes they get anxious to get to the new string and begin crossing before they are finished playing the notes on the current string. Keep an eye on your arm, etc. and make sure this is not what you are doing.
Rosindustsnorter: In my experience, the cure for this is bowing alone -- completely ditch the left hand and play the music in all open strings. Pretty simple, however works wonders!
>> What variables are checked during "setting up" a cello?
Todd French: At StringWorks, setup consists of the following:
>> Cossmann Studies
Anonymous asked: What do you think of the Cossmann studies?
Victor Sazer: Although the Cossmann studies may be useful for some cellists when used intelligently and judiciously they can be extremely dangerous when used too literally. The title page states that they are for the "Development of Agility, Strength of Fingers and Purity of Intonation."
The first thing I would suggest is to cross out "Strength of Fingers" because this can give you a skewed picture of reality. We have all seen people with bulging muscles, but you don't typically see anyone with bulging finger muscles. This is because your fingers don�t have muscles to bulge. Strengthening your fingers is a fiction. The muscles that move your fingers are in your forearm, not your fingers. If you look at your forearm as you move your fingers, you can see the movement. If you grasp your forearm with your opposite hand while you move your fingers, you can feel the movement being restricted.
Many a determined student, setting out to strengthen fingers with Cossmann type (there are also others of the same type) repetitive exercises has ended up with carpal tunnel syndrome, an increase in tension or other discomfort.
Such exercises can be most useful if their goal is to maximize freedom of movement, improve coordination, alignment and accuracy. Agility and purity of intonation are fine, but finger strengthening; NO! Most people have enough strength to do any anything that needs to be done to play the cello. Specific techniques however, do need to be learned that have to do with improved coordination, balance, freedom, etc.
Suggestions for using these studies:
>> Arm Weight
Anonymous asked: When I warm up, I always try to play 20-30 minutes of open strings to get my right hand/arm moving and get a 'feel' for it. It really has made a difference in my practice sessions since I started it seriously a few months ago.
My question is this: I know to apply pressure to the strings, you should imagine your arm connecting to your back and feel this entire weight flowing through the bow to the string. I can see this and for the most part this is what I'm doing. However, I also know pinching the bow is not a good thing. When I do my open strings, I use my left hand to feel my shoulder to see if it's tense (one of my worst habits is tensing them) and push down if it is. Then I feel my right hand tense up. In other words, as soon as my arm weight is there, my hand pinches. Any ideas on what exercises I can do to help me overcome this?
Ryan Selberg: One thing I have found useful over the years in helping my students to visualize the arm weight is to have them pet/stroke various size cats and dogs. If you imagine your arm and hand is stroking a small kitten, you instinctively know how much weight to apply in order not to hurt the animal. Conversely, for a heavier stroke, I use my own two fullsize collies (which greet all my students at the door-they think everyone is coming to see them, not me!) as the object of the virtual stroke. Being larger, and with a longer, deeper coat, it naturally takes more weight to let the hand/arm sink in to feel the body beneath the fur. And for a truly weighty stroke, a samoyed or malamute (sp?) works. Pick your own dog/cat/whatever for the inbetween strokes/weight. If you also thing of focusing the weight of your arm/hand on your first finger, you can also help reduce the gripping of the bow in the fingers. Just try holding the bow with your thumb, first and fourth fingers, then with thumb and only the middle two fingers, and feel the difference in the arm/wrist tension.
1. Eva Janzer Honorees
On Sunday, October 21st, 2001 the Eva Janzer Memorial Cello Center honored Orlando Cole and Carlos Prieto for their life long achievements in the world of cello playing and teaching, and Dr. Allen Winold for his wide ranging contributions to the world of cello playing and its practitioners.
In an interview in the November 2001 Bon Appetit, Yo-Yo Ma says that he doesn't like cilantro. On the other hand, he claims to have a near addiction to Starbuck's Caramel Macchiatos.
3. New Glass Concerto
Julian Lloyd Webber launched the China Philharmonic's first concert season in Beijing on October 21 with a new concerto by Philip Glass. Webber says of the concerto, "It's not like any other concerto I've played. It's relentless on the fingers -- there's a huge amount of thumb position and string crossings, but it's vintage Glass."
4. New Henle Edition
Henle has come out of an edition of the Mendelssohn Bartholdy Sonata for Piano and Cello in B flat major, Opus 45.
5. Julian Lloyd Webber Biography
The authorized biography of Julian Lloyd Webber has been published. It is called Married to Music and was written by Margaret Campbell.
6. Some great cello music editions
Check out this website: James Nicholas
All of the products are rather impressive, but the facsimiles of the autographs for the Schumann and Haydn D Major concerti are must-have for any lover of the cello.
7. Sphinx Competition Deadline
The Texaco-Sphinx Competition is for young black and Latino string players. There is a Junior Division (under 18) and a Senior Division (18-26). The audition tape deadline is 12/1/01. For guideline and repertoire requirements write to: email@example.com.
8. New Feuermann Competition
The Grand Prix Emanuel Feuermann 1st International Cello Competition will take place November 17-22, 2002. The competition will be organized once every four years. http://www.gp-emanuelfeuermann.de.
9. Prize Winners
World Cello Congress IV
Plan ahead! World Cello Congress IV will take place May/June 2006 at Towson University, Baltimore, Maryland. Concerts, recitals, masterclasses, workshops, symposia, exhibits, receptions. http://www.towson.edu/worldmusiccongresses .
For those who attended World Cello Congress III, videos are now available at $30 (includes shipping):http://www.towson.edu/worldmusiccongresses/video.html .
Also promised is a "Gala Benefit Performance" in 2003 to raise funds for WCC4. "Many of the greatest stars of the music world will join forces to present a one-of-a-kind event not to be missed."
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2. Rugeri Music
3. Sphinx Competition
4. Discover Classics
5. Atelier BACH.Bogen
6. Feuermann Competition
7. European String Teachers Association
8. Viola d'amore
10. Isserlis Article
11. Travel Restrictions Discussion for Cellists
12. Score On-Line
13. James Nicholas Editions
15. The Wonderful Cello
16. Harvey Shapiro Profile
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